Papers presented at the panel "The spatial ramifications of religion: new and traditional legal challenges " held at the Annual Conference 2022 of EuARe (European Academy of Religion), which took place in Bologna from 20th to 23rd June 2022 and was organised by FSCIRE.
“Pluralismo religioso e democrazia transculturale”: un ricostituente per il sistema costituzionale delle fonti in materia religiosa -
1 - Questo incontro mi offre l’opportunità di esprimere qui oggi, anche in qualità di allieva più anziana di una scuola nutrita, il profondo e sincero compiacimento per aver goduto della fortuna di poter attingere ininterrottamente, ormai da più di quarant'anni, a una sorgente tanto preziosa di conoscenza e di riflessione scientifica.
Proverò a sfruttare l’occasione di una coincidenza temporale del tutto casuale per evidenziare, in sintesi, uno dei principali meriti che sono stati nel tempo e sono ancora riconosciuti da più parti al professore Salvatore Berlingò e agli scritti raccolti nel volume di cui discutiamo.
Integral ecological transition and religious discrimination of migrant women in the Mediterranean
SOMMARIO: 1. Ecologia integrale e parità di genere - 2. Flussi migratori nel Mediterraneo e discriminazioni religiose femminili - 3. Interventi europei di collaborazione interculturale nel Mare nostrum - 4. Verso un’unica polis euromediterranea?
ABSTRACT: In this essay it is hoped that the current development model will be overcome, because it is highly polluting and unfair from a socio-economic point of view, based as it is on competition and prevarication, the result of male hegemony in decision-making bodies and therefore discriminating for weaker and for women. These, on the other hand, must guide an integral ecological transition, because they are more inclined to the custody of creation and future generations, as well as to the improvement of the general living conditions of society, through sharing and dialogue, rather than with imposition and hard confrontation, as Pope Francis claims, in the encyclical Laudato si'. In particular, the ecological and social degradation caused by the androcentric system has increased the flows of migrants so-called environmental, which cross the Mediterranean Sea undergoing abuse and discrimination including religious ones. Above all, Muslim migrant women are more vulnerable also due to the misogynistic cultural heritage resulting from an erroneous and obsolete interpretation of the Koranic texts. Europe can be more involved in the fight against the negative consequences of climate change and discrimination against migrants, implementing policies inspired by sustainable development and intercultural solidarity, also with a view to fostering the ambitious and suggestive attempt to reach a integrated Euro-Mediterranean area.
The friendship with Gladio Gemma in the years of ours teaching in the University of Modena
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. I fatti della politica e l’ambizione di contribuire alle esigenze di armonizzazione costituzionale e allo sviluppo della vita democratica in Italia - 3. Il concilio Vaticano Il e le trasformazioni della società italiana negli anni sessanta - 4. Il dibattito culturale e politico sulla riforma della legislazione ecclesiastica.
ABSTRACT: Individuals and experiences that, in the years between 1962 and 1970, had an important influence on the civic and political growth of the author and Gladio Gemma. New focus was given to the issue of relations between the State and the Catholic Church in the late fifties. The Second Vatican Council from 1962 to 1965 and the transformation of Italian society in the 1960s. Tendencies in the jurisprudence on the theme of relations between the state and religious confessions. The cultural and political debate on the reform of ecclesiastical legislation.
Questo contributo è incluso in: Varie
Un Maestro per le giovani generazioni di studiosi di diritto ecclesiastico e di diritto ecclesiale, che si pongono domande più che offrire risposte (a proposito della raccolta di saggi, Lo spirito del diritto ecclesiale. Scritti scelti di R. Bertolino) -
A leading guide for the new generations of Ecclesiastical and Canon Law scholars, the ones who got questions instead of offering answers
ABDTRACT: These brief notes just pretend to suggest some issues concerning a deepened anthology of essays written by an influential scholar, presented and collected by his colleagues of different approaches and generations. It definitely means to underline peculiar and still not completely explored issues in both Ecclesiastical and Canon Law: the liberty of conscience and the importance of religious freedom in defending fundamental human rights, the scientific purpose to investigate and analyse the still ongoing relevance of a renewed "Church" for a changing world. Rinaldo Bertolino's thoughts seem in this sense a gift to the youngest scholars, encouraging them to have more questions than answers.
È lecito che i fedeli decidano di non frequentare più chi lascia la comunità religiosa, e l’annuncio delle dimissioni ai fedeli non lede i diritti del dimissionario -
It is lawful for the faithful to decide to no longer attend those who leave the religious community, and the announcement of the resignation to the faithful does not affect the rights of the resigning person
SOMMARIO: 1. Il fatto - 2. Il punto in diritto - 3. La decisione - Sulla lesività dell’annuncio - 4. La decisione - Sull’ostracismo che sarebbe derivato dall’annuncio - 5. Conclusioni - Appendice.
Abstract: A resigning member who declares that he no longer wishes to be a member of the religious organization but at the same time does not wish to cease his membership of the same confession, is not liable to compensation for psychological and economic damage following the ratification of his resignation and its communication to the local faithful. According to the court, a member's resignation (an associative aspect) corresponds on a confessional level to no longer being considered a member of the confession. Therefore, the damaging nature of the public announcement is excluded. The general principles of law legitimize the actions of the religious organization, which also has constitutional protection in that the internal life of the religious body is regulated by its statutes, as no state interference is admissible. So-called ostracism on the part of members has no legal relevance, since it is rather the free choice of each individual to associate with someone or not, and this right is neither punishable nor harmful. The religious organization that suggests ostracizing behavior does not violate any rights as such teaching falls within the sphere of the lawful. The religious organization that suggests supposedly ostracizing behavior does not violate any legal norms, nor does it harm the interests of those who decides to cease his membership.
Riflessioni sul “giusto processo” in diritto canonico, sullo sfondo del riequilibrio in corso fra diritti e poteri nella Chiesa cattolica -
Riflessioni sul “giusto processo” in diritto canonico, sullo sfondo del riequilibrio in corso fra diritti e poteri nella Chiesa cattolica *
Reflections on due process in canon law, against the background of the ongoing rebalancing of rights and powers in the Catholic Church *
SOMMARIO: 1. Tra ‘agàpe’ e storia. Una premessa neotestamentaria - 2. (segue) Potere giudiziario e sovranità binaria. Il diritto divino dei vescovi - 3. “Heri dicebamus”? Sul tentativo curiale di ridurre il Vaticano II a mero evento culturale - 4. Origini e sviluppo dell’opposizione anticonciliare: il terreno del processo - 5. La prima controriforma vaticana: la “Nova agendi ratio in doctrinarum examine” - 6. Resilienze (non sopprimibili) di una costituzione materiale parallela? - 7. Persistenze storico-culturali di fatti compiuti prevaricanti e diritto di resistenza - 8. (segue): a) Su un “golpe Gasparri” in danno di due diversi progetti di giustizia amministrativa - 9. b) … e sulla “falsa” giustizia amministrativa del card. Grocholewski (e suoi) - 10. c) Lo sconcerto della scoperta nel clero di pratiche corruttive su minori - 11. (segue) … e l’abnorme deriva inquisitoria dei processi de delictis gravioribus - 12. Sulla voluta inattuazione dei tribunali amministrativi interdiocesani - 13. Sulle odierne, inedite sperimentazioni in tema di contenzioso matrimoniale - 14. Tra rescritti di giustizia e giurisdizione inter partes: un sottaciuto tema fondamentale - 15. Dalla frammentazione (relitto amaro di incertezze strategiche) a un ritorno al Lateranense IV?
ABSTRACT: The essay notes a continuity, starting with the Tridentine, in the deviation from the fundamental principles of what we today call 'due process', imposed by Innocent III since the Council Lateran IV. The progressive spread of special jurisdictions seemed to express the degradation of certain principles and values of medieval common law, from which canon law was gradually moving away. The 1917 code is to be seen as the final sanction and ratification of that involutional process. The author then examines the 1983 reform, which moved between reforming timidity and curial overbearingness: the special jurisdictions were untouchable; the planned chapter on administrative tribunals was deleted in extremis. The impression is that no serious follow-up has been given to the reforms ordered by Paul VI in fulfilment of the Council mandate, starting with the Doctrinal Dicastery. In fact, the centralist innovation as codified in 1917 substantially persists. It is to this petrified block, rebuilt under the two pontificates following Pope Montini, that Pope Francis I attempts to react with innovative ideas that however appear technically imprecise, and in many ways inadequate to the actual dimensions of the Holy See's overall non-fulfilment of the conciliar mandate. Against the backdrop of these perhaps promising innovative signs, Pope Francis appears on the other hand invariably opposed by the Curia, both in the field of substantive and procedural law.
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. The necessary conditions of social negotiation - 3. Nordic Secularism - 4. Organic religious literacy - 5. Translation - 6. Conclusion.
ABSTRACT: The refusal to shake hands with a female reporter by a Muslim politician from the Miljöpartiet resulted in a controversy in Sweden. Together with a number of court cases, it revealed a disparity between the established judicial line and the views of the general public. The Swedish controversy received a response from Denmark, where the ruling coalition introduced new citizenship legislation with an obligation to shake hands with the mayor during a naturalization ceremony. These controversies highlighted the rising tensions on multiple levels, between majority and minority, religious freedom and gender equality, law and public opinion. This paper takes a closer look at the role of law as a negotiator and employs the notions of Nordic secularism, organic religious literacy, and the ethos of hospitality towards the untranslatable, in order to answer two questions: where these tensions come from and what are the possible ways of overcoming them.
La disciplina del fattore religioso nella Church of England: prospettive di inclusivismo costituzionale -
SOMMARIO: 1. La crisi della Respublica Christiana e la nascita della Chiesa territoriale di Stato - 2. La politica ecclesiastica della Church of England - 3. Dal Toleration Act del 1689 al sincretismo religioso anglicano - 4. Sinodalità anglicana e corresponsabilità nel governo ecclesiale - 5. Osservazioni conclusive.
The discipline of the religious factor in the Church of England: perspectives on constitutional inclusivism
ABSTRACT: The Church of England reproduced the characteristics of national churches in which rulers were free to choose the religion to be professed and subjects obliged to observe it. This condition persisted until 1689 when William III of Orange passed an ʹact of tolerationʹ by which a certain religious freedom was fostered, albeit in embryonic form, effectively paving the way for the stabilization of the different sensibilities, theological and ecclesiological, present in the aforementioned ecclesial reality and currently converged in the High Church, Low Church and Broad Church. In this regard, it is worth recalling the positive factors that these components have offered to today's Anglican Church, among which the right of ecclesial reorganization, inclusivism and lay participation in ecclesiastical government undoubtedly stand out. In the latter direction, therefore, must be understood the Synodical Government Measure of 1969 by which a parallel constitutional structure, inspired by the revaluation of the synodal element, through which the ʹequalʹ participation of bishops, presbyters and laity in the potestas gubernandi was ensured in the Church of England, alongside the secular hierarchical chain that reaches from the sovereign down to the faithful, was introduced. Indeed, it is no accident that the Anglican Church "is episcopally led and synodically governed”.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il contributo in generale dell’Avvocato al processo matrimoniale - 3. Il ruolo dell’Avvocato nella fase pregiudiziale - 4. Il libello quale cardine del Processus brevior - 5. Il ridimensionamento del ruolo del DV nel Processus brevior - 6. La centralità del ruolo dell’Avvocato quale conseguenza anche del ridimensionamento delle attribuzioni del Tribunale - 7. Conclusioni.
The Attorney’s contribution for the purposes of Processus brevior
ABSTRACT: This paper concerns the centrality of the attorney in the Processus brevior. Because the Processus brevior’s particular structure compresses the ordinary canonical resources granted by the Legislator to the subjects involved in a matrimonial trial, the attorney becomes its principal director. In particular, the Libellus in a Processus brevior is not a canvas as in the ordinary process but becomes a script binding all parties intending to go ahead with this special canonical instrument until the desired sentence declaring the nullity of marriage.