Vie d’inclusione dei musulmani in Europa: marketing halal e banca islamica - di Michele Gradoli, Maria del Carmen de la Orden de la Cruz, Pilar Sánchez González

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione – 2. La presenza islamica in Europa – 2.1. Il livello di integrazione dei musulmani nelle città europee – 3. Marketing halal: analisi della religione come "nuova/vecchia" variabile della microsegmentazione – 3.1. Introduzione al marketing halal – 3.2. Interculturalità vs. Religione – 3.3. La religione come "nuovavecchia" variabile della microsegmentazione – 3.4. Marketing halal, un approccio europeo al mercato globale – 4. La banca islamica, strumento per l'inclusione finanziaria dei musulmani – 4.1. Il concetto di esclusione/inclusione finanziaria – 4.2. Misurare il livello di esclusione finanziaria. Un'analisi della situazione attuale – 4.3. Le iniziative per l'inclusione finanziaria a livello mondiale – 4.4. La banca islamica come strumento d’inclusione per i musulmani – 4.4.1. I principi etici della banca islamica – 4.4.2. Le potenziali della banca islamica come strumenti di inclusione sociale – 5. Conclusioni.

ABSTRACT: This work aims to highlight the obstacles of the social, political, economic and financial exclusion of the European Muslims in order to present eventual inclusive solutions. In Europe the Islamic presence is growing because of two main reasons: the immigration fluxes from Asia and from the Islamic Mediterranean countries and the high birth rates of the European Muslim families. Even if part of the European culture presents several features deriving from the Islamic heritage and even if the national and EU legislations present anti-discrimination laws and specific protections for religious freedom, the Muslims have been socially excluded. Furthermore, Islamophobia has been increasing since 9/11 and especially in the recent months after the jihadist attacks in Paris and Brussels. This feeling increased the exception of Muslims from the public and private life in the European countries. Because of these reasons nowadays it is necessary to improve the available normative tools and, at the same time, it seems crucial to adopt a multidisciplinary method that should involve the Islamic banking, that is fundamental for the development of the Islamic European entrepreneurs, or the halal marketing which considers religion as a new/old variable for the microsegmentation of the European market.