SOMMARIO: 1. L’unione con Roma degli ortodossi della Transilvania – 2. La Chiesa cattolica di rito greco nel Regno di Romania - 3. Le direttive sovietiche sulla soppressione della Chiesa cattolica di rito greco - 4. Il ruolo dell’Ortodossia romena nella soppressione della Chiesa greco-cattolica - 5. L’arresto dei vescovi greco-cattolici - 6. Il decreto sulla liquidazione della Chiesa Greco-Cattolica Romena - 7. La fine del regime comunista e il riconoscimento della Chiesa Greco-Cattolica Romena - 8. Il problema della restituzione dei beni ecclesiastici. L’evoluzione della normativa - 9. La giurisprudenza in materia - 10. La resistenza dell’Ortodossia romena - 11. La situazione attuale.
ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the birth of the Greek Catholic Church of Transylvania at the end of the 17th century, its full legal recognition in the Kingdom of Romania and its suppression implemented by the Communist regime in 1948. The process of the Greek Catholic Church liquidation, decreed by Moscow, has been implemented through the collaboration between the Romanian Government authorities and the leaders of the Romanian and Russian Orthodox Churches. With the fall of the Romanian Communist regime and the recognition of religious freedom, the Greek Catholic Church regains the right to exist and operate. The main problem which remains non resolved concerns the restitution of the ecclesiastical properties expropriated in 1948 and then assigned to the State and above all to the Orthodox Church: the latter, in the great majority of cases, rejects the requests put forward by the Greek Catholic Church, which thus is forced to seek justice through the courts. For many years the refusal of the Orthodox Church to return the property once belonging to the Greek Catholic Church was supported by an ambiguous legislation and by the influence wielded by the Orthodox Church. At present, following international pressure, the Courts of Romania seem determined to render the Greek Catholic Church justice, but they meet with resistance from local authorities linked with the Orthodox Church.